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The Sound of Music (Beshalach)

The following is a short thought on this week’s Parshah, Beshalach. For a summary of the Parshah, please click here. For last year’s Beshalach article, “The Metaphor of the Manna,” please click here. For more on the new “short thoughts” format, please click here. *Please also note the following correction: Bnei Yisrael offered the korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nissan; an earlier version of last week’s article on Parshat Bo inadvertently included a different date. 


kriatyamsoofAfter Bnei Yisrael cross the Yam Suf (the Sea of Reeds) and watch their former masters, the Egyptians, drown within it, they erupt in Shirat HaYam (the “Song of the Sea”). This song appears in full in this week’s Parshah, Beshalach. Both its lyrics, and the narrative which surrounds them, offer us prime examples of the ways in which our Torah carefully cascades its language to express multiple layers of meaning simultaneously. Let’s divide our analysis of this phenomenon into two overlapping units: (a) Shirat HaYam along with the story that precedes it—Exod. 13:17-15:19; and (b) Shirat HaYam along with the story that succeeds it—Exod. 14:30-15:27. Our study will focus primarily (though not exclusively) on phonetics, i.e. on words that share similar sounds.[i]  

  1. Exod. 13:17-15:19

This unit includes Bnei Yisrael’s exodus from Egypt, their confrontation with the Egyptians on the shores of Yam Suf, and the song which they sing following the death of those Egyptians. Within this unit, we find the following linguistic resonances:

 פֶּן-יִנָּחֵם הָעָם בִּרְאֹתָם מִלְחָמָה–וְשָׁבוּ מִצְרָיְמָה

וְלֹא-נָחָם אלקים דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים

Lest the people reconsider [ינחם] when they see war and return to Egypt (13:17) God did not lead [נחם] the Israelites by way of the land of the Philistines (13:17)

וּפַרְעֹה, הִקְרִיב; וַיִּשְׂאוּ בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת-עֵינֵיהֶם וְהִנֵּה מִצְרַיִם נֹסֵעַ אַחֲרֵיהֶם

וְלֹא-נָחָם אלקים דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים, כִּי קָרוֹב הוּא

Pharaoh drew near [הִקְרִיב] and the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold! the Egyptians were advancing after them (14:10) God did not lead the Israelites by way of the land of the Philistines, though it was the closer [קָרוֹב] route (13:17)

וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם, אֶת-ה’; וַיַּאֲמִינוּ, בַּה’, וּבְמֹשֶׁה, עַבְדּוֹ.

 פֶּן-יִנָּחֵם הָעָם בִּרְאֹתָם מִלְחָמָה–וְשָׁבוּ מִצְרָיְמָה

And the people revered [וַיִּירְאוּ] the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in Moses, His servant (14:31) Lest the people reconsider when they see [בִּרְאֹתָם] war and return to Egypt (13:17)

וַיֹּאמֶר ה’ אֶל-מֹשֶׁה, נְטֵה אֶת-יָדְךָ עַל-הַיָּם; וְיָשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם עַל-מִצְרַיִם, עַל-רִכְבּוֹ וְעַל-פָּרָשָׁיו

פֶּן-יִנָּחֵם הָעָם בִּרְאֹתָם מִלְחָמָה–וְשָׁבוּ מִצְרָיְמָה

The Lord said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the water flow back [וישבו] upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen (14:26) Lest the people reconsider when they see war and return [ושבו] to Egypt (13:17)

וּבְרוּחַ  {ר} אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם,  {ס}  נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ-נֵד  {ר}
נֹזְלִים;  {ס}  קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת, בְּלֶב-יָם. 

וְחִזַּקְתִּי אֶת-לֵב-פַּרְעֹה, וְרָדַף אַחֲרֵיהֶם, וְאִכָּבְדָה בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל-חֵילוֹ, וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם כִּי-אֲנִי ה’

And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were heaped up; the running water stood erect like a wall; the depths congealed in the depths [בלב] of the sea  (14:8) And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart [לב]  and he will pursue them, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh and through his entire force, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord (14:4)

וַיָּסַר, אֵת אֹפַן מַרְכְּבֹתָיו, וַיְנַהֲגֵהוּ, בִּכְבֵדֻת; וַיֹּאמֶר מִצְרַיִם, אָנוּסָה מִפְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל–כִּי ה’, נִלְחָם לָהֶם בְּמִצְרָיִם

וְחִזַּקְתִּי אֶת-לֵב-פַּרְעֹה, וְרָדַף אַחֲרֵיהֶם, וְאִכָּבְדָה בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל-חֵילוֹ, וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם כִּי-אֲנִי ה’.

And He removed the wheels of their chariots, and made them drive heavily [בכבדת], and the Egyptians said, Let me run away from the Israelites because the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians  (14:25)

And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart and he will pursue them, and I will be glorified [ואכבדה] through Pharaoh and through his entire force, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord (14:4)

שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים, יִרְגָּזוּן;  {ס}  חִיל  {ר} אָחַז, יֹשְׁבֵי פְּלָשֶׁת. 

וְחִזַּקְתִּי אֶת-לֵב-פַּרְעֹה, וְרָדַף אַחֲרֵיהֶם, וְאִכָּבְדָה בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל-חֵילוֹ, וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם כִּי-אֲנִי ה’.

People heard, they trembled; a shudder [חיל] seized the inhabitants of Philistia (15:14)

And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart and he will pursue them, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh and through his entire force [חילו], and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord (14:4)

וַיָּסַר אֵת אֹפַן מַרְכְּבֹתָיו, וַיְנַהֲגֵהוּ, בִּכְבֵדֻת; וַיֹּאמֶר מִצְרַיִם, אָנוּסָה מִפְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל–כִּי ה’, נִלְחָם לָהֶם בְּמִצְרָיִם

וַיֶּאְסֹר, אֶת-רִכְבּוֹ; וְאֶת-עַמּוֹ, לָקַח עִמּוֹ

And He removed [ויסר] the wheels of their chariots, and made them drive heavily, and the Egyptians said, Let me run away from the Israelites because the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians  (14:25) So he [Pharaoh] harnessed [ויאסר]  his chariot, and took his people with him (14:6)

וּבְרוּחַ  {ר} אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם,  {ס}  נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ-נֵד  {ר}
נֹזְלִים;  {ס}  קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת, בְּלֶב-יָם. 

וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל-הָעָם, אַל-תִּירָאוּ–הִתְיַצְּבוּ וּרְאוּ אֶת-יְשׁוּעַת ה’, אֲשֶׁר-יַעֲשֶׂה לָכֶם הַיּוֹם:  כִּי, אֲשֶׁר רְאִיתֶם אֶת-מִצְרַיִם הַיּוֹם–לֹא תֹסִפוּ לִרְאֹתָם עוֹד, עַד-עוֹלָם

And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were heaped up; the running water stood erect [נצבו] like a wall; the depths congealed in the depths of the sea (15:8).

Moses said to the people, Don’t be afraid! Stand firm [התיצבו] and see the Lord’s salvation that He will wreak for you today, for whereas you see the Egyptians today, you shall no longer continue to see them for eternity (14:13)

וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת-יָדוֹ, עַל-הַיָּם, וַיּוֹלֶךְ ה’ אֶת-הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה כָּל-הַלַּיְלָה, וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת-הַיָּם לֶחָרָבָה; וַיִּבָּקְעוּ, הַמָּיִם

אָמַר  {ר} אוֹיֵב אֶרְדֹּף אַשִּׂיג,  {ס}  אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל; תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ  {ר} נַפְשִׁי–  {ס}  אָרִיק חַרְבִּי, תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי.  {ס}  

And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord led the sea with the strong east wind all night, and He made the sea into dry land  [חרבה]and the waters split (14:21)

The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will share the booty; my desire will be filled from them; I will draw my sword [חרבי], my hand will impoverish them  (15:9)

These linguistic resonances serve several literary purposes. At one level, they produce dramatic irony, by underscoring the sharp contrast between the expectations held by our scene’s various stakeholders and the reality that actually unfolds. Thus, for instance, Bnei Yisrael avoid the “close” [קרוב] route for fear of war, only to find Pharaoh “advancing” [הקריב] with his army in hot pursuit; they appear ready to contemplate a “return” [ושבו] to Egypt, but wind up watching the waters of Yam Suf “flowing back” [וישבו] upon, and drowning, the very Egyptians to whom they would have surrendered; etc.

Simultaneously, the linguistic resonances highlight our scene’s poetic justice, i.e. the  middah k’neged middah (“measure for measure”) parallelism that lend it its tight moral symmetry. Pharaoh “harnesses” [ויאסר] his chariot only for Hashem to “remove” [ויסר] its wheels; he chases Bnei Yisrael with a hardened “heart” [לב], but is ultimately cast into the “depths” [בלב] of the sea; etc.

  1. Exod. 14:30-15:27

This unit includes Shirat HaYam and the crisis that follows immediately upon its heels, as Bnei Yisrael struggle to find drinkable water in the desert. Within this unit, we find the following linguistic resonances:

וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, אֶת-הַתֹּף–בְּיָדָהּ; וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל-הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ

וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם-סוּף, וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל-מִדְבַּר-שׁוּר; וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת-יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְלֹא-מָצְאוּ מָיִם

Miriam, the prophetess,[ii] Aaron’s sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out [ותצאן] after her with timbrels and with dances (15:20). Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out [ויצאו] into the desert of Shur; they walked for three days in the desert but did not find water (15:22).

וַתַּעַן לָהֶם, מִרְיָם:  שִׁירוּ לַה’ כִּי-גָאֹה גָּאָה, סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם

וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם-סוּף, וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל-מִדְבַּר-שׁוּר; וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת-יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְלֹא-מָצְאוּ מָיִם

And Miriam called out to them, Sing (שירו) to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea (15:21) Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur (שור); they walked for three days in the desert but did not find water (15:22).

מַרְכְּבֹת פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ, יָרָה בַיָּם;  {ס}  וּמִבְחַר  {ר}
שָׁלִשָׁיו, טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם-סוּף

וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם-סוּף, וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל-מִדְבַּר-שׁוּר; וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת-יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְלֹא-מָצְאוּ מָיִם

Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He cast into the sea, and the elite of his officers  [שלשיו] sank in the Red Sea  (15:4) Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur; they walked for three [שלשת] days in the desert but did not find water (15:22).

 וַיּוֹלֶךְ ה’ אֶת-הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה כָּל-הַלַּיְלָה, וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת-הַיָּם לֶחָרָבָה; וַיִּבָּקְעוּ, הַמָּיִם

וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם-סוּף, וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל-מִדְבַּר-שׁוּר; וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת-יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְלֹא-מָצְאוּ מָיִם

and the Lord led [ויולך] the sea with the strong east wind all night, and He made the sea into dry land and the waters [המים] split  (15:21) Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur; they walked [וילכו] for three days in the desert but did not find water [מים]  (15:22)

 כִּי  בָא סוּס פַּרְעֹה בְּרִכְבּוֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁיו, בַּיָּם,  {ס}  וַיָּשֶׁב ה’ עֲלֵהֶם,  {ר}אֶת-מֵי הַיָּם;  {ס}  וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הָלְכוּ בַיַּבָּשָׁה, בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם

וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה–וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לִשְׁתֹּת מַיִם מִמָּרָה, כִּי מָרִים הֵם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמָהּ, מָרָה

For Pharaoh’s horses came [בא] with his chariots and his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought the waters of the sea back upon them, and the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea (15:19).

They came [ויבאו] to Marah, but they could not drink water from Marah because it was bitter; therefore, it was named Marah (15:23)

וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, אֶת-הַתֹּף—בְּיָדָהּ

וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה–וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לִשְׁתֹּת מַיִם מִמָּרָה, כִּי מָרִים הֵם; עַל-כֵּן קָרָא-שְׁמָהּ, מָרָה

Miriam [מרים], the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out after her with timbrels and with dances (15:20—see also 15:21). They came to Marah, but they could not drink water from Marah because it was bitter [מרים]; therefore, it was named Marah (15:23)

מַרְכְּבֹת פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ, יָרָה בַיָּם

וַיִּצְעַק אֶל-ה’, וַיּוֹרֵהוּ ה’ עֵץ, וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל-הַמַּיִם, וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם; שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט, וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ.

Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He cast [ירה] into the sea  (15:4) So he [Moses] cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed [ויורהו] him a piece of wood, which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them (15:25).

יְמִינְךָ ה’, נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ;  {ס}  יְמִינְךָ  {ר}
ה’, תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב. 

וַיִּצְעַק אֶל-ה’, וַיּוֹרֵהוּ ה’ עֵץ, וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל-הַמַּיִם, וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם; שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט, וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ.

Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful; Your right hand, O Lord, crushes [תרעץ] the foe  (15:6) So he [Moses] cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him a piece of wood[עץ] , which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them (15:25).

וַיּוֹשַׁע ה’ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא, אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל–מִיַּד מִצְרָיִם; וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל [iii]אֶת-מִצְרַיִם, מֵת עַל-שְׂפַת הַיָּם

וַיִּצְעַק אֶל-ה’, וַיּוֹרֵהוּ ה’ עֵץ, וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל-הַמַּיִם, וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם; שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט, וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ.

On that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand[s] of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the shore [שפת] of the sea (14:30). So he [Moses] cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him a piece of wood, which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance [משפט], and there He tested them (15:25).

שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים, יִרְגָּזוּן;  {ס}  חִיל  {ר} אָחַז, יֹשְׁבֵי פְּלָשֶׁת. 

וַיֹּאמֶר אִם-שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ, וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה, וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָיו, וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל-חֻקָּיו–כָּל-הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר-שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם, לֹא-אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ, כִּי אֲנִי ה’, רֹפְאֶךָ

People heard[שמעו] , they trembled; a shudder seized the inhabitants of Philistia  (15:14).

And He said, If you hearken [שמוע תשמע] to the voice of the Lord, your God, and you do what is proper in His eyes, and you listen closely to His commandments and observe all His statutes, all the sicknesses that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you, for I, the Lord, heal you (15:26).

וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, אֶת-הַתֹּף–בְּיָדָהּ; וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל-הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ, בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹת

וַיֹּאמֶר אִם-שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ, וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה, וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָיו, וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל-חֻקָּיו–כָּל-הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר-שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם, לֹא-אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ, כִּי אֲנִי ה’, רֹפְאֶךָ

Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out after her with timbrels and with dances[מחלות]  (15:20). And He said, If you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, and you do what is proper in His eyes, and you listen closely to His commandments and observe all His statutes, all the sicknesses [מחלה] that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you, for I, the Lord, heal you (15:26).

As in the previous unit, the verbal links that connect Shirat HaYam with our second scene—Bnei Yisrael’s water crisis in the desert—undoubtedly reflect a form of poetic justice. In this unit, however, the distribution of desserts has been reversed: now it is not the Egyptians, but indeed, Bnei Yisrael themselves, whose actions Hashem counterbalances through the mechanism of middah k’neged middah. Most poignant, in this regard, is the juxtaposition of the Egyptians, who were entirely submerged in water, and the Israelites, who now cannot find water at all.

This narrative apposition is enmeshed within a linguistic matrix that subtly reinforces the passage’s central theme. Bnei Yisrael “sang” [ישיר, שירו] in celebration as they watched the Egyptians drown to their death, but almost met their own deaths in the wilderness of “Shur” [שור]; the women performed jubilant “dances” [מחלות], but they and the rest of the nation came close to contracting “sicknesses” [מחלה] shortly after; etc. To be sure, some of these connections are more compelling than others; but the frequency and density with which they crop up within an episode comprised of no more than five verses in total would appear to indicate that they are indeed directed towards thematic ends.

To wit, their thrust is to temper Bnei Yisrael’s triumphalism with a modicum of timidity—to level the euphoria that rightly overcomes the nation in the wake of its salvation with appropriate empathy for the suffering of the vanquished. Hashem inculcates this empathy within Bnei Yisrael by subjecting them to the near-inverse fate of the one which met their enemies.[iv] Of course, He averts its outcome at the eleventh hour; the purpose of this plight had, after all, been pedagogic, not punitive. But the lesson has been delivered. בנפל אויביך אל תשמח:[v] rejoicing at the loss of human life is distasteful to the Creator of that life. Even when those lives belong to our enemies, then, their end—like the waters of Marah—ought to strike us as bittersweet.

Shabbat shalom!


Notes

[i] Some harbor the assumption that phonetics constitute a branch of linguistics inferior to, say, philology or etymology, and that a focus on the sounds of words, as opposed to the semantics thereof, cannot provide any real insight into the meaning of the text. Yet for centuries, oral communication was the primary mode through which Torah was taught and studied. Moreover, Shirat HaYam, in particular, is a text that was originally produced to be recited aloud. Thus, the notion that its meaning is to be found not only in the denotative, connotative or diachronic properties of its words, but also in the sounds produced when those words are audibly articulated, should not strike us as unreasonable.

[ii] It is interesting that the text here takes pains to designate Miriam as a “prophetess,” i.e., one capable of predicting the future (see Rashi, ad. loc.). In some sense, it is the ability to foresee later events that drives the dynamics of our scene; thus Rashi, citing the Midrash, explains as follows how the women of Bnei Yisrael came to possess the “timbrels” with which they followed Miriam in song: “The righteous women of that generation were so certain that the Holy One, blessed be He, would perform miracles for them, they took timbrels out of Egypt.” Actually, there is a second question that this Midrash answers as well—one that should occur to us if we have been carefully following the progression of events since the exodus—namely: How is it that the same Israelites who failed to pack either bread (see Exod. 12:39, along with last week’s article) or water (as we discover this week, in Exod. 15:22-26, which we have been studying) for their journey into the desert, nevertheless thought to bring along “timbrels?” At the level of peshat, this is a real challenge; but if, following the Midrash, we understand that Bnei Yisrael were “certain that the Holy One, blessed be He, would perform miracles for them,” then the issue is neatly resolved.

[iii] Although ת and ט were in all likelihood distinct phonemes in ancient Israel, it seems that they would have been sufficiently similar to evoke each other.

[iv] Perhaps this is in fact part of what is being intimated in the episode’s conclusion, when Hashem states: כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך—“all the sickness that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you” (15:26).

[v] Prov. 24:17. See Megillah 10b: “God does not rejoice at the downfall of the wicked. And R. Yohanan said: “…the ministering angels wanted to sing [along with Bnei Yisrael], but God said: My creations are drowning in the sea and you wish to sing?”


2 Comments

  1. Mike Shriqui says:

    Great lesson in how to treat any triumph over another. Thanks very much Alex and Shabbat Shalom!

  2. I never noticed this before so thanks.
    Here’s one more to add to the list: azza in Exodus 14:21 / azzi in Exodus 15:2 (and also az in 15:1).

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